Enablers and Constraints of an Effective and Sustainable Mother Tongue-­‐Based Multilingual Education Policy in the Philippines.

Authors:
Date:
2011
Degree:
Ph.D., University of Bangor/ University of Wales
Extent:
415 pages
Abstract:
This thesis focuses on the development of effective and sustainable policies that can support systems of basic education for children from minority ethnolinguistic communities in the complex multilingual context of the Philippines. The aim of the thesis is to identify, using a constructivist approach to grounded theory, the constraints and enablers of effective and sustainable mother tongue-based multilingual education for learners from minority ethnolinguistic communities, an approach which will enable learners to access quality education in multiple languages without sacrificing their own ethnolinguistic and cultural identity. Chapters 1 to 4 discuss the relevant literature associated with the context and subject focussing on the sociolinguistic and socio-historical issues underpinning language policy development and basic education in the Philippines. Chapters 5 and 6 situate Philippine realities within a broader international context reviewing the roles of international organisations as influencers of policy and implementation strategies. Chapter 7 considers the constructivist grounded theory and the rationale for the methodological approaches chosen for this research. This chapter outlines the research procedures and processes, data gathering methods and the limitations of the current research . This chapter also considers the role of the researcher as an outsider in a cross-cultural research environment Chapters 8 to 10 reviews data gathered during this research, organising and categorising responses and identifying themes. Chapter 8 describes the current realities in education for learners from minority ethnolinguistic communities in the Philippines while Chapter 9 outlines inhibitors and enablers of change as identified by respondents. Chapter 10 analyses the recommendations for change and development suggested by respondents. Chapter 11 contains conclusions and recommendations arising from the research. Recommendations include an increased need for evidential research on the impact of mother tongue-based multilingual education and improved awareness-raising and advocacy among influential stakeholders. There is a need to strengthen government capacity in the delivery of equitable education and also the empowerment of local communities to establish sustainable local education structures, responsive to local needs. Finally, this study recommends the implementation of rigorous systems for the monitoring and evaluation of mother tongue-based multilingual education programmes in order to identify effective practices.
Publication Status:
Preprint
Table of Contents:
Contents Declaration/Statements 2 Abstract 8 Chapter 1 – Introduction 15 1.1 Research Aims and Context 15 1.2 Multilingual Education: A Personal and Professional Interest 17 1.3 Language and development for communities 20 1.4 Research Questions 21 1.5 The aim and approach of this study 21 1.5.1 A Distinctive Focus 23 1.6 Structure of the Thesis 24 Chapter 2 – Languages and their Roles in Society and Education 27 2.1 Introduction 27 2.2 How many languages are there in the world? 28 2.2.1 Linguistic diversity 29 2.2.2 Geographical spread 30 2.3 Endangered languages 33 2.3.1 Endangered languages and multilingualism 33 2.4 Language Planning and Language Policy 35 2.4.1 Interventions in language issues 36 2.4.2 Formalisation as a discipline in language planning and policy 37 2.4.3 Challenges 42 2.5 Language death 44 2.5.1 Why should we be concerned about the vitality of minority languages? 46 2.5.2 Unity and diversity 48 2.5.3 What choices exist? 49 2.6 Language development as a contribution to language maintenance and revitalisation 55 2.7 Children’s education and language revitalisation 57 2.8 Conclusion 58 Chapter 3 – The Philippines: Ethnolinguistic Diversity in a Developing Nation 60 3.1 Introduction 60 3.2 Geography 60 3.3 Demographics 61 3.4 Ethnolinguistic Diversity 62 3.4.1 Language Maps of the Philippines 64 3.5 Minority Ethnolinguistic Communities 64 3.6 Philippine History and the National Sociolinguistic Context 66 3.6.1 Key Events in Philippines History 67 3.6.2 Negrito peoples 69 3.6.3 Arrival of Islam 69 3.6.4 Spanish period 70 3.6.5 The Spanish Friars 71 3.6.6 Free Basic Education 72 3.6.7 United States period (1898-1935) 73 3.6.8 Commonwealth Era (1935-1946), the Japanese Occupation and World War II (1941-1945) 75 3.6.9 Post World War II Independence (1946 – 1972) 76 3.6.10 Martial law and People Power 76 3.7 Economic development 77 3.7.1 1960-2008 77 3.7.2 Overseas Foreign Workers and Call Centres 78 3.8 Impact of Sociopolitical and Socioeconomic Climate on Minority Ethnolinguistic Communities 80 3.9 Institutional Perspectives on Linguistic Diversity 81 3.9.1 Government and Politics 82 3.9.2 Media 83 3.9.3 Religion 84 3.10 Language Planning in the Philippines 85 3.10.1 Status planning 86 3.10.2 Corpus planning 91 3.11 Domains of Language Use 93 3.11.1 Language and identity 96 3.11.2 Attitudes toward the English language 98 3.11.3 Attitudes towards Filipino 100 3.11.4 Attitudes towards other vernacular languages 101 3.12 Language use 102 3.13 Conclusion 103 Chapter 4 – Children’s Education in the Philippines 105 4.1 Introduction 105 4.2 Historical influences in Philippine Education 106 4.2.1 Pre-Spanish period 106 4.2.2 Spanish period 108 4.2.3 United States colonial period 109 4.2.4 Education post-Independence (1946 – 1987) 116 4.2.5 The Pilipino controversy 118 4.2.6 Bilingual Education Policy 119 4.2.7 Bilingual Education Policy revision 120 4.2.8 1987 Bilingual Education Policy 121 4.2.9 Congressional Commission on Education (1991) 122 4.3 Initiatives in the Philippines on the uses of local languages in education 122 4.3.1 Iloilo Experimental Programmes 123 4.3.2 The Rizal study (1960-1966) 125 4.3.3 First Language Component – Bridging Programme (FLC-BP) in Ifugao 126 4.3.4 Mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) in Lubuagan Kalinga 131 4.3.5 FLC – Region II 138 4.3.6 Regional Lingua Franca Experimental Programme 139 4.4 Education in the Philippines 2000 - 2010 143 4.4.1 Participation in Basic Education 144 4.4.2 Philippine Commission on Educational Reform 145 4.4.3 Macapagal-Arroyo Administration 148 4.4.4 Basic Education Reform Agenda (BESRA) 2006 - 2010 149 4.4.5 Department of Education Order No. 74 s. 2009 150 4.5 Conclusion 151 Chapter 5 – Language and Education for Children from Minority Ethnolinguistic Communities 154 5.1 Introduction 154 5.2 Influence of multilateral agencies 156 5.2.1 United Nations 156 5.2.2 UNESCO 157 5.2.3 UNICEF 165 5.3 UNDP 166 5.4 Rights of minority ethnolinguistic communities 167 5.5 Rights-based approaches to development in the Philippines 175 5.6 Rights-based approaches to education 177 5.7 The Influence of Financial institutions 179 5.7.1 World Bank 181 5.7.2 Asian Development Bank 183 5.8 Conclusion 184 Chapter 6 – Some Key Factors in the Implementation of Mother Tongue-based Multilingual Education Programmes 186 6.1 Introduction 186 6.2 Language and Literacy in Multilingual Contexts 187 6.2.1 Autonomous and critical literacies 189 6.3 Curriculum development and educational planning for learners from minority ethnolinguistic communities 191 6.3.1 Transformative pedagogy 194 6.3.2 Convergent pedagogy 197 6.4 Language and Educational Practice in the Philippines 198 6.5 Conclusion 204 Chapter 7 – The Research Process 207 7.1 Introduction 207 7.2 The Nature of this Study 207 7.2.1 Theoretical Framework 207 7.2.2 Insider/outsider roles and relationships 209 7.2.3 Research Questions 213 7.3 Data collection 213 7.3.1 Participation 214 7.3.2 Documentary and literature research 216 7.3.3 Interviews 217 7.3.4 Written Questionnaires 220 7.3.5 Ethical Considerations 228 7.4 Data Analysis 230 7.4.1 Analysis of written questionnaires and oral interviews 230 7.5 Methodological reflections and limitations of the current project 232 7.6 Conclusion 233 Chapter 8 – Current Realities 234 8.1 Introduction 234 8.2 Teachers and learners – opportunities and challenges 235 8.3 Learners 236 8.3.1 Opportunities for learners 236 8.3.2 Advantages for learners 246 8.3.3 Challenges for learners 251 8.3.4 Summary 261 8.4 Teachers 262 8.4.1 Opportunities and Advantages for teachers 262 8.4.2 Challenges for teachers 268 8.5 Conclusion 276 Chapter 9 – Inhibitors and Enablers of Change 279 9.1 Introduction 279 9.2 Influences on Policy Development 280 9.2.1 Post-colonial and national unity issues 281 9.2.2 Awareness of impact of mother tongue-based multilingual education 284 9.2.3 Globalisation and global competitiveness 288 9.2.4 Infrastructures for implementation of MLE 290 9.2.5 Advocacy and Influence of NGOs and Multilateral Agencies and other Opinion Leaders 292 9.2.6 Sociolinguistic factors 293 9.3 Influences on local level implementation 295 9.3.1 Government support 295 9.3.2 Awareness and understanding of mother tongue-first multilingual education 297 9.3.3 Teachers and teacher training 299 9.3.4 Materials development and availability 299 9.3.5 Other issues 300 9.4 Conclusion 302 Chapter 10 – Recommendations for Change and Development 306 10.1 Introduction 306 10.2 Key Inputs for Implementation of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education 307 10.2.1 Policy Change at National Level 309 10.2.2 Specific MLE Teacher Training for L1 Teachers 311 10.2.3 Awareness Training for District and Division Supervisors on the Impact of Mother Tongue First MLE 313 10.2.4 Funding for pilot mother tongue-first MLE projects in minority ethnolinguistic communities 314 10.3 Additional inputs and resources to support mother tongue-based multilingual education initiatives 316 10.3.1 Community/Government Collaboration for effective MLE 317 10.3.2 Teacher identification and appointment 319 10.3.3 Language, Education and Development in Multilingual Contexts 320 10.4 Conclusion 321 Chapter 11 – Conclusions and Recommendations 325 11.1 Introduction 325 11.2 Summary of Findings 325 11.2.1 Main factors impacting language-in-education policy in the Philippines 326 11.2.2 Main factors inhibiting the implementation of effective multilingual education at the local level 332 11.2.3 Key inputs and resources for integration of MLE into the national curriculum 334 11.3 Enablers and constraints of effective and sustainable MLE in the Philippines 335 11.4 Implications of research for the Philippines and other contexts 336 11.5 Recommendations 339 11.5.1 Research and data gathering 339 11.5.2 Policy strengthening, Awareness-raising and Advocacy 341 11.5.3 Strengthen Government Capacity in Equitable Education 342 11.5.4 Community empowerment with Sustainable, Local, Education Infrastructure 344 11.5.5 Monitoring and Evaluation Systems 345 11.6 Methodological Reflections 346 11.7 Further Research 349 11.8 Conclusion 352 Appendix I 354 Publications 354 Conference Presentations 355 Appendix II 356 Map 1: Location of the Philippines in Southeast Asia 356 Map 2: The Philippines 357 Map 3: Language Map of the Philippines 358 Map 4: Language Map of the Northern Philippines 359 Map 5: Language Map of the Southern Philippines 360 Appendix III 361 Survey Document 1 361 Survey Document 2 365 Sample Survey Response 1 369 Sample Survey Response 2 373 Appendix IV 377 Q3: Opportunities, advantages and challenges faced by teachers of children from minority ethnolinguistic communities 377 Appendix V 378 Extracts From Reflective Journal 378 Bibliography 380
Country:
Philippines
Content Language:
Work Type:
Subject:
Language planning
Language policy
Multilingual Education
Nature of Work:
Entry Number:
41808