Lalo regional varieties: Phylogeny, dialectometry, and sociolinguistics

Authors:
Date:
2010
Degree:
Doctor of Philosophy in Linguistics, La Trobe University
Extent:
xxv, 422 pages
Abstract:
Lalo is a Central Ngwi (Loloish) language cluster spoken in western Yunnan, China by fewer than 300,000 speakers. The purpose of this thesis is to subgroup Lalo regional varieties according to phonetic distance, intelligibility, and historical relationships. Integrating results from historical linguistics, dialectometry, and sociolinguistics, this thesis presents a more complex picture of Lalo inter-dialectal relationships than previously thought.
Publication Status:
Preprint
Table of Contents:
Table of contents Acknowledgements iii List of tables xi List of figures xviii List of abbreviations xxi List of data source abbreviations xxii Explanation of supplementary material xxiii Abstract xxiv Statement of authorship xxv Chapter 1 : Introduction 1 1.1. Purpose 1 1.2. Historical and social context of Lalo varieties 2 1.2.1. Phylogeny 2 1.2.2. Population 3 1.2.3. Geography 4 1.2.4. History 10 1.2.5. Linguistic ecology 12 1.3. Previous research on Lalo 15 1.4. Theoretical framework 18 1.4.1. Sound change 18 1.4.2. Reconstruction and subgrouping 20 1.4.3. Dialectometry 24 1.4.4. Intelligibility 26 1.5. Outline of the thesis 28 Chapter 2 : Methodology 32 2.1. Introduction 32 2.2. Data collection 33 2.2.1. Location of datapoints 33 2.2.2. Material and participants 36 2.3. Acoustic analysis of tone 40 2.4. Measuring phonetic distance 42 2.4.1. The Levenshtein distance algorithm 42 2.4.2. The representation of tone 44 2.4.3. Analysing the Levenshtein distance matrix 46 2.4.3.1 NeighborNet network analysis 46 2.4.3.2 Multidimensional scaling 49 2.5. Measuring intelligibility 50 2.6. Exploring dialect perceptions and interactions 54 2.7. Assessing ethnolinguistic vitality 56 Chapter 3 : Phonological sketches of Lalo varieties 59 3.1. Introduction 59 3.2. Central Lalo: CW-QY 59 3.2.1. CE-YA: East Mountain 65 3.2.2. C-CJ 68 3.2.3. C-LJ 69 3.3. MD 71 3.4. Eka 74 3.5. Western Lalo: W-YL 79 3.5.1. W-DT 83 3.5.2. W-SZP 85 3.5.3. W-SLZ 85 3.6. Eastern Lalo: E-DC 86 3.6.1. E-TS 90 3.6.2. E-HS 92 3.7. YL 94 3.8. XZ 96 3.9. Summary 98 Chapter 4 : Proto-Lalo segments 99 4.1. Introduction 99 4.2. Proto-Lalo initials 99 4.2.1. Stops 100 4.2.1.1 Affricates 103 4.2.1.2 Consonant clusters 103 4.2.2. Fricatives 111 4.2.2.1 Alveolar fricatives 111 4.2.2.2 Palatoalveolar fricatives 112 4.2.2.3 Velar and cavity fricatives 113 4.2.3. Resonants 114 4.2.3.1 PN *r > PLa *ɣ, *ʃ, *h 115 4.2.3.2 PN *j > PLa *ʒ, *ʃ, *h 117 4.2.3.3 PN *w > PLa *v, *ʔv, *f 119 4.2.3.4 PN *l > PLa *l, *ʔl, *h 121 4.2.4. Nasals 122 4.2.4.1 PN *m > PLa *m, *ʔm, *mj, *ʔmj 122 4.2.4.2 PN *n > PLa *n, *ʔn; PN *ɲ > PLa *ɲ, *ʔɲ 124 4.2.4.3 PN *ŋ > PLa *ŋ, *ʔŋ, *ŋj, *ʔŋj; PN *ŋw > PLa *ŋw 125 4.2.5. Summary of initials 127 4.3. Proto-Lalo rhymes 128 4.3.1. PN front vowels *i, *e, *ej, *aj, *waj, *we 133 4.3.1.1 PN *i > PLa *i, *e, *ɛ, *ɨ 133 4.3.1.2 PN *ej > PLa *ɛ 136 4.3.1.3 PN *e > PLa *i, *ɨ, *ɛ 137 4.3.1.4 PN *aj > PLa *ɛ, *e, *y 139 4.3.1.5 PN *waj > PLa *ɛ 140 4.3.1.6 PN *we > PLa *ɛ, *ɨ 140 4.3.2. PN central and back vowels *a, *u, *ow, *o, *a(:)w, *wa 141 4.3.2.1 PN *a > PLa *a 142 4.3.2.2 PN *u > PLa *u, *y, *o 143 4.3.2.3 PB *ow > PLa *u 144 4.3.2.4 PN *o > PLa *o, *i, *ɨ, *[wɨ] 145 4.3.2.5 PN *aw > PLa *u, *o 147 4.3.2.6 PN *wa > PLa *y, *a 148 4.3.3. PN nasal-final rhymes 148 4.3.3.1 PN *am, *wam, *wan, *um > PLa *y 149 4.3.3.2 PN *im, *iŋ > PLa *i 150 4.3.3.3 PN *in, *an > PLa *e; PB *i:n > PLa *i 152 4.3.3.4 PN *aŋ > PLa *aŋ 154 4.3.3.5 PN *waŋ, *oŋ, *un > PLa *u 156 4.3.4. PN stop-final rhymes> PLa harsh vowels 156 4.3.4.1 PN *ip, *it, *i:t, *ik > PLa *i̠ 157 4.3.4.2 PN *et, *ek, *øk > PLa *ɛ̠ 159 4.3.4.3 PN *up, *ut, *uk, *ok > PLa *u̠, *o̠, *y̠, *ɨ̠ 160 4.3.4.4 PN *ap, *wap > PLa *y̠; *at > PLa *e̠; *wat > PLa *ɛ̠, *ɨ̠ 162 4.3.4.5 PN *ak > PLa *e̠, a̠, *wak > PLa *u̠, *jak > PLa *e̠ 164 4.3.5. Summary of rhymes 166 Chapter 5 : Proto-Lalo tones and tone changes 168 5.1. Introduction: Phonetic motivations for tone change 168 5.2. Proto-Lalo tones 176 5.2.1. Evidence for PLa tone system from Central Lalo and MD 178 5.2.2. Proto-Lalo’s Tone *2 split 182 5.3. Tone change in Lalo varieties 186 5.3.1. Tone change in C Lalo 188 5.3.2. Tone change in E Lalo 193 5.3.3. Tone change in W Lalo 195 5.3.4. Tone change in XZ, YL and Eka 200 5.4. Discussion 204 5.4.1. Tone *1 split 204 5.4.2. Interaction between harsh phonation and pitch in *L and *H tone changes 206 5.5. Summary 206 Chapter 6 : Diachronic subgrouping of Lalo varieties 208 6.1. Introduction 208 6.2. Membership in Lalo 211 6.3. Peripheral varieties Eka, YL and MD 214 6.4. Greater Lalo 215 6.5. Core Lalo: C-W-E 216 6.6. C-W 220 6.7. Lower-level clusters: E, W, and C 222 6.7.1. Tonal innovations that distinguish W and E 222 6.7.2. E rhyme innovations 225 6.7.3. C and W innovations in initials 227 6.7.4. C rhyme innovations 230 6.7.5. Core W innovations 232 6.8. Contact relationships 233 6.9. Summary 236 Chapter 7 : Synchronic classification of Lalo varieties 240 7.1. Introduction 240 7.2. Phonetic distance results 240 7.2.1. NeighborNet network analysis 241 7.2.2. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) 245 7.3. Intelligibility test results 247 7.4. Correlation between phonetic distance and intelligibility 251 7.5. Speaker perception and interactions 254 7.6. Summary 259 Chapter 8 : Conclusion 261 8.1. Introduction 261 8.2. Degree of endangerment of Lalo regional varieties 261 8.3. Summary of findings 266 8.3.1. Reconstruction of Proto-Lalo 267 8.3.2. Classification of Lalo varieties 268 8.4. Contributions of this thesis 270 8.5. Directions for future research 272 8.6. Conclusion 273 Appendix A: Sources of Lalo population statistics by county 274 Appendix B: Elicitation frames from Pelkey (in press 2010) 278 Appendix C: Sociolinguistic interview schedules 279 Appendix D: Sample RTT score chart (CW-QY) 292 Appendix E: Sample Lalo language data and Proto-Lalo reconstructions 295 Appendix F: Lalo language data arranged in alphabetical order by the English gloss 353 References 411
Country:
China
Content Language:
Work Type:
Subject:
reconstruction
Language documentation
Lalo
dialects
classification
Nature of Work:
Entry Number:
42568