Substrate Influence on body-part idioms in Crioulo of Guinea-Bissau

Date:
2011
Abstract:
This paper explores the degree of substrate influence of four Niger-Congo North Atlantic languages (Papel, Mankanya, Jola Bayote, and Balanta) on the Portuguese-based creole language Crioulo spoken in Guinea-Bissau. I compare body-part idioms across these languages and then compare them with European Portuguese, and to a lesser extent, with Kabuverdianu, the creole spoken on Cape Verde. To adequately claim language contact and substrate influence, the historical sociolinguistic background is discussed. On the basis of this data, several idioms are shown to have been influenced by the substrate languages. Other idioms are shown to reflect universal cognitive processes. The findings are then applied to the Bible translation projects of Guinea-Bissau.
Publication Status:
Published
Table of Contents:
LIST OF TABLES..... x LIST OF FIGURES ..... xi LIST OF MAPS ..... xii ABBREVIATIONS USED..... xiii 1 Introduction ..... 1 2 Literature Review ..... 4 2.1 Creoles..... 4 GENERAL ..... 4 CREOLE GENESIS ..... 6 2.2 Language contact and change ..... 10 VARIATION ..... 11 CRITERIA FOR LANGUAGE CONTACT ..... 12 CRITERIA FOR SUBSTRATE INFLUENCE ..... 13 2.3 Concepts and processes of language contact..... 16 RELEXIFICATION..... 16 HOMOGENEITY ..... 20 SEMANTIC TRANSPARENCY ..... 20 CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS ..... 21 2.4 Idiomatic expressions ..... 24 WHAT IS AN IDIOM? ..... 24 Conventionality ..... 25 Compositionality ..... 25 Transparency..... 26 Worldview ..... 27 IDIOM PROCESSING ..... 28 IDIOM TRANSFER ..... 30 3 Guinea-Bissau Crioulo..... 33 LANGUAGES ..... 41 4 Research Methodology..... 44 5 Findings..... 47 5.1 Body-part Idioms in Crioulo..... 50 LEXICAL..... 50 Head ..... 51 Mouth..... 52 Heart..... 52 Eye..... 53 Blood ..... 54 Stomach..... 54 Hard/soft ..... 55 Cold/hot ..... 56 Lightweight ..... 58 CONSTRUCTION ..... 59 5.2 Data in light of language change ..... 63 5.3 Data in light of substrate hypothesis..... 65 Substrate Influence ..... 66 Independent development..... 68 HOMOGENEITY ..... 69 RELEXIFICATION..... 70 KABUVERDIANU ..... 72 5.4 Universal tendencies..... 73 5.5 Superstrate hypothesis tendencies ..... 76 5.6 In light of translation ..... 77 6 Conclusion..... 81 APPENDIX A ..... 84 APPENDIX B ..... 86 APPENDIX C ..... 88 REFERENCES ..... 90 VITA ..... 99
Country:
Guinea-Bissau
Subject Languages:
Content Language:
Work Type:
Subject:
substrate influence
Idioms
guinea-bissau
crioulo
creoles
Atlantic languages
Nature of Work:
Entry Number:
43556