Overview of grammatical structures of Ndut: A Cangin language of Senegal

Date:
1996
Extent:
175
Abstract:
This paper provides an overview of some of the grammatical structures of Ndut, a Cangin language of the Atlantic branch of the Niger-Congo language family. As several processes operate to obscure morphological boundaries, a brief description of the phonological system is presented. Insights from underspecification theory and feature geometry are applied to the analyses of the [ATR] based vowel harmony and two assimilation processes. Normal word order in simple clauses is SVO, but where a verbal auxiliary and a main verb are present, pronominal objects occur between the two verb forms. Postposed noun class markers, the associative marker, and the three term deictic-demonstrative system are also considered. The verbal inflectional and derivational suffixes and auxiliaries that make up the verb phrase are presented. Three types of subordination are also examined. Subject-verb word order inversion is observed in certain adverbial and relative clauses.
Description:
The purpose of this thesis is to provide a description of some of the basic structures of Ndut grammar. As no extensive analysis of Ndut syntax has previously been undertaken, this is necessarily a first approach to almost all of the topics covered, and many important structures are left untouched or are treated in a very tentative and superficial manner.
Publication Status:
Published
Table of Contents:
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii ABSTRACT v LIST OF FIGURES x LIST OF TABLES xi ABBREVIATIONS xii Chapter 1: Introduction 1 1.1 Present situation and history of the language group 1 1.2 Language classification 2 1.3 Survey of previously published research 6 1.4 Research and data corpus 7 1.5 Description of Texts 9 1.6 Organization of the Thesis 11 Chapter 2: Phonology 13 2.1 Consonants 13 2.2 Vowels 14 2.3 Vowel harmony 15 2.4 Syllable structure and sandhi 16 2.4.1 Syllable structure 16 2.4.2 Sandhi 17 2.5 Stress 19 2.6 Assimilation processes 20 2.7 Conclusion 24 Chapter 3: Nominal Syntax and Morphology 25 3.1 Clause structure 25 3.1.1 Case marking in Ndut 25 3.1.2 Word order in the clause 32 3.2 The noun class system 37 3.2.1 Class 1: ɓ- Personal 39 3.2.2 Class 2: -Ø 40 3.2.3 Class 3: f- 41 3.2.4 Class 4: k- 42 3.2.5 Class 5: m- 42 3.2.6 Class 6: Plural 43 3.3 The noun phrase 45 3.3.1 Constituent order in the noun phrase 45 3.4 Deictic system 55 3.4.1 The demonstrative pronouns 59 3.4.2 The demonstrative nominals 63 3.4.3 The manner and locative adverbs 66 3.4.4 The locative determiner suffixes 71 3.4.6 Temporal deixis 73 3.5 The prepositional phrase 77 3.6 Numerical system 80 3.7 Conclusion 81 Chapter 4: Overview of verb Morphology 84 4.1 Verbal suffixes 85 4.1.1 The perfective -Ce 86 4.1.2 The unmarked verb 87 4.1.3 The durative na 89 4.1.4 The morpheme -a‚ 92 4.1.5 The morpheme -u / -uu 95 4.1.6 Negation in the verb 99 4.1.7 The imperative and subjunctive suffixes 100 4.2 Periphrastic constructions and auxiliaries 102 4.2.1 The auxiliary hom 103 4.2.2 The deictic existentials 104 4.2.3 The presentatives 107 4.2.4 The future ay 107 4.2.5 The auxiliary mín: ability 109 4.2.6 The auxiliary waɗ: obligation 109 4.2.7 The auxiliary lah: necessity 110 4.2.8 The auxiliary an 111 4.2.9 Residue 111 4.2.10 Summary of auxiliary constructions 113 4.3 Derivation 114 4.3.1 Verbal derivation 115 4.3.2 Nominalizing suffixes 121 4.3.3 Reduplication 123 4.4 Voice and valency 124 4.4.1 Passive 125 4.4.2 Valency increasing devices 127 4.5 Conclusion 130 Chapter 5: subordinate constructions 131 5.1 Adverbial Clauses 131 5.1.1 Subordinating morphemes 132 5.1.2 Word order inversion 137 5.2 Relative Clauses 140 5.2.1 Marking the relative clause 141 5.2.2 The noun phrase accessibility hierarchy 142 5.2.3 Marking the position relativized 143 5.2.4 Marking the verb in the RC 146 5.2.5 SV inversion in the relative clause 148 5.2.6 The resumptive pronoun 149 5.3 Complementation 150 5.3.1 The direct and indirect quote complement 150 5.3.2 The complementizer biti 152 5.4 Conclusion 153 Chapter 6: conclusion 155 6.1 Summary 155 6.2 Directions for further research 157 APPENDIX A: Narrative texts 161 References 176
Country:
Senegal
Subject Languages:
Content Language:
Field:
Work Type:
Nature of Work:
Entry Number:
48088