Yamphu: A sociolinguistic survey

Other Contributors:
Date:
2012
Date Created:
2011
Extent:
89 pages-report; 126 pages-appendices; 21 pages-wordlist
Abstract:
This report presents the results of sociolinguistic research conducted among representatives of four Rai language communities of Sankhuwasabha and Dhankuta districts of Nepal: the Yamphu [ybi], Yamphe [yma], Northern Lorung [lbr], and Southern Lorung [lrr]. Linguistic and anthropological research has been conducted in these communities by van Driem, Hanβon, Hardman, Rutgers, and Forbes. All of these researchers have provided valuable information, but have not shed light on sociolinguistic realities. Given the unclear vitality of each language and the relationships between these languages, the results of the research show the following: Yamphe [yma] is shown to not be a unique linguistic entity. The Southern Lorung [lrr] community identifies themselves as Yamphu, but speaks a different variety than the Yamphu to the north and so will be called Southern Yamphu [lrr]; Because there is no Southern Lorung and because the autoglottonym includes /ho/, Northern Lorung [lbr] should be called Lohorung. While vitality varies by village, overall, it is strong enough to warrant further language development in all Yamphu communities. Each Yamphu community expressed desire for language-based development and should be supported in appropriate ways. Relatively low lexical similarity and intelligibility test scores, as well as reported language use and attitudes between Yamphu, Southern Yamphu, and Lohorung support the claims of this research. Strong ethno-linguistic identity and language use point towards high vitality and continued language use.
Description:
Appendices contain content in Nepali, Yamphu and Lohorung
Publication Status:
Preprint
Table of Contents:
1 PURPOSE AND GOALS 1 2 INTRODUCTION 3 2.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE 3 2.2 GEOGRAPHY 4 2.2.1 Yamphu locations 6 2.3 PEOPLES 7 2.3.1 History of Yamphu Rai people 7 2.3.2 Cultural distinctives 8 2.3.3 Language development committees and organizations 9 2.4 LANGUAGE 10 2.4.1 Genetic relationships 10 2.4.2 Yamphu linguistics 10 2.4.3 Language contact and multilingualism 11 3 METHODOLOGY 13 3.1 SITE SELECTION 13 3.2 SUBJECT SELECTION 14 3.3 INSTRUMENTS 15 3.3.1 Word list comparisons 15 3.3.2 Recorded Text Test (RTT) 16 3.3.3 Informal interviews 16 3.3.4 Dialect Mapping participatory method 17 3.3.5 Domains of Language Use participatory method 18 3.3.6 Bilingualism participatory method 18 3.3.7 Appreciative Inquiry participatory method 19 3.4 OVERVIEW OF SURVEY GOALS AND METHODS 20 4 DESIRES FOR DEVELOPMENT 23 4.1 INFORMAL INTERVIEW RESULTS 23 4.1.1 Learning to read and write Yamphu 23 4.1.2 Yamphu class for children 25 4.1.3 Importance of reading and writing Yamphu 25 4.2 APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY PARTICIPATORY METHOD RESULTS 26 4.3 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION DESIRES 26 4.3.1 Presence of Yamphu teachers 26 4.3.2 Belief in education as a vehicle for language maintenance and development 27 4.4 SUMMARY OF DESIRES FOR DEVELOPMENT 27 5 LANGUAGE USE AND VITALITY 29 5.1 DOMAINS OF LANGUAGE USE 31 5.1.1 Domains of language use overall 32 5.1.2 Language use in the home 35 5.2 LANGUAGE USE BY AGE, EDUCATION, AND GENDER 35 5.2.1 Domains of language use by age 35 5.2.2 Domains of language use by education 37 5.2.3 Domains of language use by gender 38 5.3 INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSFER 39 5.3.1 Language use by children 39 5.3.2 Language use across generations 41 5.4 VITALITY IN YAMPHU SPEECH COMMUNITIES 43 5.4.1 Hedangna 45 5.4.2 Devitar 46 5.4.3 Seduwa 46 5.4.4 Rajarani 47 5.4.5 Khoktak 48 5.5 SUMMARY 49 6 LANGUAGE VARIATION AND ATTITUDES 51 6.1 YAMPHE [YMA] 51 6.2 YAMPHU [YBI] 52 6.2.1 Lexical similarity results 52 6.2.2 Recorded Text Test results 53 6.2.3 Pre and post-RTT question results 57 6.2.4 Summary 59 6.3 SOUTHERN YAMPHU [LRR] 60 6.3.1 Lexical similarity 60 6.3.2 RTT results 60 6.3.3 Pre and post-RTT question results 61 6.3.4 Emic (insider) perspectives 61 6.3.5 Southern Yamphu identity 62 6.3.6 Summary 63 7 YAMPHU DIALECT VARIATION AND ATTITUDES 65 7.1 LEXICAL SIMILARITY RESULTS 65 7.2 RECORDED TEXT TEST RESULTS 66 7.3 PRE AND POST-RTT QUESTION RESULTS 66 7.4 DIALECT MAPPING DATA 67 7.5 PREVIOUS RESEARCH 67 7.6 SUMMARY 67 8 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 69 8.1 DESIRES FOR DEVELOPMENT 69 8.1.1 Summary of findings 69 8.1.2 Implications 69 8.2 YAMPHU LANGUAGE USE AND VITALITY 70 8.2.1 Summary of findings 70 8.2.2 Implications 71 8.3 LANGUAGE VARIATION AND ATTITUDES 72 8.3.1 Summary of findings 72 8.3.2 Implications 73 8.4 DIALECT VARIATION AND ATTITUDES 73 8.4.1 Summary of findings 73 8.4.2 Implications 74 9 REFERENCES 75
Country:
Nepal
Work Type:
Work Type:
Subject:
assessment
Dhankuta district
Lohorung
Sankhuwasabha district
Southern Yamphu
survey report
Yamphu
Yamphu survey report
Nature of Work:
Relation Text:
Annapurna SIL Design Review B font
Entry Number:
50175