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This paper presents the results of sociolinguistic research conducted between May 2003 and September 2004 among the Yaghnobi people living in four distinct regions of western and northwestern Tajikistan. The primary goal of the research was to examine a number of factors which account for the varying levels of ethnolinguistic vitality found in different Yaghnobi villages. Of particular interest is the claim that the current overall ethnolinguistic vitality of Yaghnobi and its best hope for continued vitality are anchored in the degrees of homogeneity and isolation (either geographic or social) manifested by key communities. The primary tools used to gather data were a series of structured interview forms, including a social networks form and an ethnic identity form. In addition, data concerning proficiency in Tajik were gathered using number of tools including various self-evaluation techniques.