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It is five years since the print version of this volume was published. For this international electronic
edition, new maps in color have been furnished for page 3, and color illustrations for page 10. An addendum to Part I brings the record of Bidayuh language development up to date.
The Bidayuh language development recorded in this book only concerns the Land Dayaks in Sarawak,
Malaysia. Many other Land Dayaks live across the border in Kalimantan, Indonesia. By some accounts,
Bidayuhs have lived in Sarawak for about a thousand years. The Bidayuh hope to be resident here as a
distinct people for a long time to come.
The linguistic write-ups have also been updated; some points of analysis in Part II have been modified,
and the cognate sets in appendix 1 of part III are slightly more complete and correct than they were in
The varieties of language spoken by the Bidayuh people exhibit a rich variety with regard to
pronunciation of the vowels, especially the central vowel, and spread and blocking of nasality. This study
of these and other features of Bidayuh is offered to the Bidayuh people with the hope that it will help them
in their language development efforts, and to a wider linguistic audience that may find these features
interesting from a typological and historical perspective.