Communities developing resources and competencies for using their languages
Foundational understanding for language development work of all kinds
Publications, fonts and computer tools for language development, translation and research
SIL offers training in disciplines relevant to sustainable language development.
7,105 languages are spoken or signed. CLICK for map of world languages & regional websites.
SIL's dedication to language development past and present
A basic introduction to the study of semantics, prepared mainly for those approaching, for the first time, the study of this discipline and its application to Bible translation. In addition to the presentation of theory, a number of practical exercises are also included. This workbook provides a foundation for further understanding and practical development of the translator's skills.
"Katy" Barnwell has served with SIL International since 1963 in Nigeria and other countries in Africa, and from 1989 to 1999 in the International Translation Department at Dallas. Currently, she is an international translation consultant. She received her Ph.D. in Linguistics from the School of African and Oriental Studies and University College, London, in 1969.
1. What is Language?
2. Meaning and Form
2.1-2.3 Theoretical Background
2.4-2.7 Basic Principle of Bible Translation
3. Meaning in Context and ‘Concordance’
4. Studying the Area of Meaning of a Word
5. Components of Meaning
6. Other Lexical Relationships
7. Associative Meaning
8. On Collecting Lexical Information
9. Transferring Lexical Meaning From One Language to Another
10. Rhetorical Questions
11. Figures of Speech: Metaphor and Simile
12. Other Figures of Speech
13. Explicit and Implicit Information
14. The Concept
15. Introducing Propositions
16. Relations within a Proposition (Case or Role)
17. Relations between Propositions--Part I
18. Relations between Propositions--Part II
19. Relations between Propositions--Part III and Relations between a Proposition and a Concept
20. Clustering of Propositions
21. Introducing ‘Literary--Semantic Analyses’
22. The Paragraph and other larger Communication Units
23. Some further aspects of Discourse Analysis
24. Bible Translation Procedures
Appendix 1: Data for analysis: Mike Mulligan and his Steam Shovel
Appendix 2: Bibliography