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SIL Electronic Survey Report 2004-012, August 2004

Copyright © 2004 Steve and Trina Graham and SIL International
All rights reserved.


West Africa Lusolexed Creoles Word List File Documentation

Steve and Trina Graham


Contents


Abstract

The site contains some supporting data for a social network study by Steve Graham, focusing on the West Africa Lusolexed Creoles spoken on some of the Cape Verde Islands. The data for the West Africa Lusolexed Creoles was collected during six months of sociolinguistic research on the Cape Verde Islands in 1996, and during five months of sociolinguistic research on the island in the Gulf of Guinea in 1997. The report contains documentation of speakers' lexical data.


1. Documentation of Word Lists

Map of Africa

This website contains the supporting data for a social network study by Steve Graham, focusing on the West Africa Lusolexed Creoles spoken on the Cape Verde Islands of: Santo Antão, São Vicente, São Nicolau, Sal, Boavista, Maio, Santiago, Fogo, and Brava; and the Gulf of Guinea Islands of: Bioko, Príncipe, São Tomé, and Annobón. The data was collected for the study by Steve and Trina Graham during six months of sociolinguistic research on the Cape Verde Islands in 1996, and during five months of sociolinguistic research on the islands in the Gulf of Guinea in 1997. The data was collected from a total of twenty-nine Lusolexed Creoles speakers, representing an urban and rural context on each of these islands. The research assumes that each speaker is a constituent of a local community of social networks, and views the constituent speaker as an actor representing the local community. Hence, the speakers were interviewed and screened to assure a strong, long-term affiliation in the local community through birth, family ties, work ties, and minimal travel outside the local area.

The data is comprised of 169 lexical items elicited from each of the twenty-nine speakers. The data was elicited in Portuguese from Lusolexed Creoles speakers who demonstrated that they were not uncomfortable holding a conversation in Portuguese. The observers’ paradox was thus considered in the preparation for data collection, accepting the traditional view of a tendency for these languages to move toward the lexifier language. To minimize the influence of Portuguese on the data, the Portuguese glosses were not given in the elicitation process. A semi-monolingual/descriptive approach was employed. The monolingual aspect included miming actions, pointing to objects, or pointing at qualities of objects, such as color and number. In cases where the monolingual approach was not feasible, a description of the object, action or quality was given in Portuguese. The final step included giving the Portuguese gloss to check the elicitation gained in the semi-monolingual/descriptive process. This elicitation process was duplicated in Spanish for the data collected in Equatorial Guinea.

Attempts were made during the elicitation process to articulate each lexical item, soliciting the speakers’ correction of the attempted articulation of each lexical item. Once the particular speaker was satisfied with the articulation, the transcription was finalized using the International Phonetic Alphabet. Each lexical item was then recorded in a format of three utterances in succession in a separate sound file containing the three utterances of the lexical item.

The data on the website is organized into directories: (1) Cape Verde Creoles and (2) Gulf of Guinea Creoles. The Cape Verde Creoles are organized into subdirectories by island: Santo Antão, São Vicente, São Nicolau, Sal, Boavista, Maio, Santiago, Fogo, and Brava, The Gulf of Guinea Creoles are organized into subdirectories by language: Angolar, Annobonese, Principense, and Sãotomense. All the files are organized into subsequent subdirectories by different elicitation locations on each of the islands.

The list of 170 lexical items, adopted in this study, was developed by the International Language Assessment Coordinator for the Summer Institute of Linguistics in an effort to standardize the lexical data collected by its language assessment personnel. Lexical item number 55, spear, was disqualified, as it was not perceived as appropriate by the speakers of the Creoles on the Cape Verde Islands and the islands in the Gulf of Guinea, (Most of these speakers tended to perceive the item as a stereotyping of the cultures of continental Africa, and they seemed to resist the possibility of it stereotyping their island cultures). This resulted in a list of 169 lexical relations for analysis: eye, ear, nose, mouth, tooth, tongue, head, hair, neck, belly, navel, breast, buttocks, knee, foot, hand, fingernail, skin, intestine, bone, urine, blood, heart, liver, human, man, husband, father, woman, wife, child, name, cow, goat, dog, elephant, snake, louse, tortoise, fish, chicken, bird, feather, wing, horn, tail, egg, milk, fat, animal, salt, seed, pot, iron, (spear), war, knife, stool, house, village, rope, night, moon, star, sun, sky, cloud, wind, rain, dew, water, river, fire, smoke, firewood, ash, mountain, ground, dust, sand, stone, tree, root, tree bark, leaf, path, year, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, warm, cold, dry, hunger, long, tall, short, small, round, all, many, full, good, new, who, what, why, red, black, white, bite, eat, drink, vomit, cough, suck, spit, blow, whistle, sing, laugh, dog bark, smell, see, say, hear, show, push, press, pull, fly, play, throw, hit, walk, swim, sit down, stand up, lie down, fall, sleep, give, steal, kill, split, wash pot, wash clothes, scratch, cultivate, pour, burn, swell, fear, know, want, count, send, come, leave, marry, give birth, die, and bury.

2. Documentation of Locations

Map of Africa

The following table provides the location information for the actors/speakers tendering the lexical data, along with the local name of the Portuguese-based Creole spoken at the location. Click on the actor designator, in the first column, for detailed information on the actor/speaker and location.

Actor
LOCATION ON ISLAND
ISLAND
COUNTRY
LANGUAGE NAME

SA1

Corda

Santo Antão

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Barlavento

SA2

Ribeira Grande

Santo Antão

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Barlavento

SA3

Porto Novo

Santo Antão

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Barlavento

SV1

Mindelo

São Vicente

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Barlavento

SV2

Salamansa

São Vicente

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Barlavento

SN1

Ribeira Brava

São Nicolau

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Barlavento

SN2

Campine

São Nicolau

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Barlavento

SL1

Espargos

Sal

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Barlavento

SL2

Palmeira

Sal

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Barlavento

BV1

Sal Rei

Boavista

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Barlavento

BV2

Povoação Velha

Boavista

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Barlavento

B1

Vila Nova Sintra

Brava

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Sotavento

B2

Nossa Senhora do Monte

Brava

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Sotavento

F1

São Filipe

Fogo

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Sotavento

F2

Mosteiros

Fogo

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Sotavento

S1

Praia

Santiago

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Sotavento

S2

Tarrafal

Santiago

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Sotavento

S3

Assomada

Santiago

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Sotavento

M1

Vila do Maio

Maio

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Sotavento

M2

Figueira da Horta

Maio

Cape Verde

Kabuverdianu Sotavento

KST

Agua Grande

São Tomé

São Tomé & Príncipe

Kabuverdianu

KP

Santo Antonio

Príncipe

São Tomé & Príncipe

Kabuverdianu

ST1

Trindade

São Tomé

São Tomé & Príncipe

Sãotomense

ST2

Agua Grande

São Tomé

São Tomé & Príncipe

Sãotomense

A

São João dos Angolares

São Tomé

São Tomé & Príncipe

Angolar

P1

Santo Antonio

Príncipe

São Tomé & Príncipe

Principense

P2

Novo Destino

Príncipe

São Tomé & Príncipe

Principense

FDA

Palé

Annobón

Equatorial Guinea

Annobonese

FDB

Malabo

Bioko

Equatorial Guinea

Annobonese

3. Documentation of Actors/Speakers Tendering Lexical Data

Map of Africa

Actor SA1:
Place of birth: Ribeira Grande, Santo Antão, Cape Verde
Gender: Female
Age: 20
Occupation: Market vendor
Education: 9 years
Data collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Ribeira Grande, Santo Antão, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor SA2:
Place of birth: Corda, Santo Antão, Cape Verde
Gender: Female
Age: 50
Occupation: Gardener
Education: No formal education
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Corda, Santo Antão, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor SA3:
Place of birth: Porto Novo, Santo Antão, Cape Verde
Gender: Female
Age: 31
Occupation: Homemaker
Education: 11 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Porto Novo, Santo Antão, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor SV1:
Place of birth: Mindelo, São Vicente, Cape Verde
Gender: Male
Age: 33
Occupation: Church leader
Education: 11 years plus Seminary
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Mindelo, São Vicente, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor SV2:
Place of birth: Salamansa, São Vicente, Cape Verde
Gender: Male
Age: 44
Occupation: President of the Town Council
Education: 11 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Salamansa, São Vicente, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor SN1:
Place of birth: Ribeira Brava, São Nicolau, Cape Verde
Gender: Male
Age: 39
Occupation: Cobbler
Education: 4 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Ribeira Brava, São Nicolau, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor SN2:
Place of birth: Campine, São Nicolau, Cape Verde
Gender: Male
Age: 72
Occupation: Farmer
Education: 4 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Campine, São Nicolau, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor SL1:
Place of birth: Espargos, Sal, Cape Verde
Gender: Female
Age: 56
Occupation: businesswomen
Education: 9 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Espargos, Sal, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor SL2:
Place of birth: Palmeira, Sal, Cape Verde
Gender: Female
Age: 54
Occupation: Homemaker
Education: 4 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Palmeira, Sal, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor BV1:
Place of birth: Sal Rei, Boavista, Cape Verde
Gender: Male
Age: 30
Occupation: Librarian
Education: 9 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Year: 1996
Location: Sal Rei, Boavista, Cape Verde
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor BV2:
Place of birth: Espingueira, Boavista, Cape Verde
Gender: Male
Age: 56
Occupation: Fisherman
Education: 4 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Espingueira, Boavista, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor B1:
Place of birth: Vila Nova Sintra, Brava, Cape Verde
Gender: Male
Age: 43
Occupation: Commercial motorist
Education: 6 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Vila Nova Sintra, Brava, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor B2:
Place of birth: Nossa Senhora do Monte, Brava, Cape Verde
Gender: Female
Age: 48
Occupation: Merchant
Education: 9 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Nossa Senhora do Monte, Brava, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor F1:
Place of birth: São Filipe, Fogo, Cape Verde
Gender: Male
Age: 22
Occupation: Night guard
Education: 4 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: São Filipe, Fogo, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor F2:
Place of birth: Mosteiros, Fogo, Cape Verde
Gender: Male
Age: 26
Occupation: Chauffeur
Education: 6 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Mosteiros, Fogo, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor S1:
Place of birth: Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde
Gender: Female
Age: 27
Occupation: Housekeeper
Education: 6 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor S2:
Place of birth: Tarrafal, Santiago, Cape Verde
Gender: Male
Age: 24
Occupation: Student
Education: 11 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Tarrafal, Santiago, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor S3:
Place of birth: Assomada, Santiago, Cape Verde
Gender: Female
Age: 31
Occupation: Boarding house receptionist
Education: 9 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Assomada, Santiago, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor M1:
Place of birth: Vila do Maio, Maio, Cape Verde
Gender: Male
Age: 22
Occupation: Student
Education: 11 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Vila do Maio, Maio, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor M2:
Place of birth: Figueira da Horta, Maio, Cape Verde
Gender: Female
Age: 19
Occupation: Housekeeper
Education: 6 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Figueira da Horta, Maio, Cape Verde
Year: 1996
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor KST:
Place of birth: Agua Grande, São Tomé
Gender: Male
Age: 23
Occupation: Carpenter
Education: 7 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Agua Grande, São Tomé
Year: 1997
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor KP:
Place of birth: Santo Antonio, Príncipe
Gender: Male
Age: 27
Occupation: Schoolteacher, (grades 1–4 on a plantation)
Education: 9 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Santo Antonio, Príncipe
Year: 1997
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor ST1:
Place of birth: Trindade, São Tomé
Gender: Female
Age: 51
Occupation: Schoolteacher, (primary)
Education: 9 years, plus 3 years teacher training
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Trindade, São Tomé
Year: 1997
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor ST2:
Place of birth: Agua Grande, São Tomé
Gender: Male
Age: 30
Occupation: Administrative secretary
Education: 5 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Agua Grande, São Tomé
Year: 1997
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor A:
Place of birth: São João dos Angolares, São Tomé
Gender: Male
Age: 41
Occupation: Palm wine maker
Education: 2 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: São João dos Angolares, São Tomé
Year: 1997
Language names, in order of speaker use:

Notes:

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Actor P1:
Place of birth: Santo Antonio, Príncipe
Gender: Male
Age: 27
Occupation: Painter
Education: 9th grade
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Santo Antonio, Príncipe
Year: 1997
Language names, in order of speaker use:

Notes:

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Actor P2:
Place of birth: Novo Destino, Príncipe
Gender: Male
Age: 80
Occupation: Agriculture
Education: 4 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Novo Destino, Príncipe
Year: 1997
Language names, in order of speaker use:

Notes:

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Actor FDA:
Place of birth: San Pedro, Annobón, Equatorial Guinea
Gender: Male
Age: 36
Occupation: Schoolteacher, (primary)
Education: 12 years plus teacher training
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Palé, Annobón, Equatorial Guinea
Year: 1997
Language names, in order of speaker use:

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Actor FDB:
Place of birth: Malabo, Bioko, Equatorial Guinea
Gender: Male
Age: 25
Occupation: Seminary student
Education: 12 years
Collected by: Steve and Trina Graham
Location: Malabo, Bioko, Equatorial Guinea
Year: 1997
Language names, in order of speaker use:

References

Gunther, Wilfred. 1973. Das portugiesische Kreolisch der Ilha do Príncipe. Marburg an der Lahn: Im Selbstverlag.

Maurer, Philippe. 1995. L'Angolar: Un créole afro-portugais parlé à São Tomé; Notes de grammaire, textes, vocabulaires. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Traill, Anthony, and Luiz Ferraz. 1981. The interpretation of tone in Principense Creole abstract phonological analysis. In Studies in African Linguistics. Los Angeles, California, August, (12):2:205–215.


Date published: 10-AUG-2004
Questions/Comments: