Testing and experiments

Before an orthography is widely used in literature, it is advisable to test it. Also, when readers or writers are finding the orthography difficult to use, deliberate testing can guide to the desired change. Testing can be formal, with solid statistical analysis, or less formal, depending on focused observations. But without testing, any diagnosis of a deficiency in the orthography will likely be guesswork.

  • Bird, Steven. 1999. “When marking tone reduces fluency: An orthography experiment in Cameroon.” Language and Speech 42.1:83–115.
  • Duitsman, John. 1986. "Testing two systems for marking tone in Western Krahn." Notes on Literacy 49:2–10.
  • Gudschinsky, Sarah C. 1968. "A test for orthographic ambiguity." Notes on Literacy 3:1–2.
  • Hasselbring, Sue. 1996. "Orthography testing in Botswana." Notes on Literacy 22.2:34–37.
  • Karan, Elke. 2013. The ABD of orthography testing: Integrating formal or informal testing into the orthography development process. SIL-UND Workpapers, Vol 53
  • Karan, Elke. 2014. The ABD of orthography testing: Practical guidelines. SIL-UND Workpapers, Vol 54.
  • Kosonen, Kimmo. 2003. Testing Chong Orthography in Thailand. Paper presented at Conference on language development, language revitalization and multilingual education in minority communities in Asia, 6–8 November 2003, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • Longacre, Robert E. 1970. "An experiment in testing the reading of Trique without indication of tone." Notes on Literacy 8:1–3.
  • Mbulaheni Musehane & Mashudu Maṱhabi (2016) Orthographic errors in written Tshivenḓa on funeral programmes of Vhembe District Municipality funeral undertakers, South African Journal of African Languages, 36:2, 225-230, DOI: 10.1080/02572117.2016.1252025
  • Roberts, David. 2008. Thirty Years of Tone Orthography Testing in West African Languages (1977-2007). Journal of West African Languages 35:1–2, 199–242
  • Roberts, David. 2010. Exploring Written Ambiguities Can Help Assess Where to Mark Tone. Writing Systems Research, 2:1, 25–40.
  • Roberts, David, Stephen L Walter, and Keith Snider. 2015. Neither deep nor shallow: a classroom experiment testing the orthographic depth of tone marking in Kabiye (Togo). Language and Speech 59:1.113–138. DOI: 1177/0023830915580387.
  • Rudder, John. 1979. "Diagnostic testing in languages with phonemic alphabets." Notes on Literacy 28:1–2.
  • Wendell, Margaret M. 1970. "A problem in Totonac orthography." Notes on Literacy 9:30–34.