Tone

Some other resources in the Areas pages also include something on tone, but these have tone as their main subject.

Also see the page on Fonts and technical issues, which discusses issues of grammatical tone marking and Unicode.

  • Bird, Stephen. 1999a. When marking tone reduces fluency: An orthography experiment n Cameroon. Language and Speech 42: 83-115.
  • Bird, Stephen. 1999b. Strategies for representing tone in African writing systems. Written Language and Literacy 2.1: 1–44.
  • Bolli, Margrit. 1978. "Writing tone with punctuation marks." Notes on Literacy 23:16–18.
  • Cahill, Mike. 2000. Avoiding Tone Marks: A Remnant of English Education? Notes on Literacy 26.1:1–11.
  • Duitsman, John. 1986. "Testing two systems for marking tone in Western Krahn." Notes on Literacy 49:2–10.
  • Hollenbach, Barbara E. 1978. Choosing a tone orthography for Copala Trique. Notes on Literacy 24:52-61.
  • Kutsch Lojenga, Constance. 1993. "The writing and reading of tone in Bantu languages." Notes on Literacy 19.1:1–19.
  • Kutsch Lojenga, Constance. 2014. “Orthography and Tone: A Tone-System Typology with Implications for Orthography Development.”  In Developing Orthographies for Unwritten languages, edited by Michael Cahill and Keren Rice, 49–72. Dallas: SIL International.
  • Longacre, Robert E. 1953. A tone orthography for Trique. (The Bible Translator 4.1:8–13. Reprinted in   Smalley, William A. (editor). 1964. Orthography studies: Articles on new writing systems. London, Amsterdam: United Bible Societies; North-Holland, 132–137. Also online.
  • Miller, Margaret D. 1970. "Tone diacritics in Loma." Notes on Literacy 8:3–6.
  • Roberts, David. 2011. Autosegmental and pedagogical considerations in preparation for a tone orthography experiment in Kabiye. JWAL XXVIII.2: 87–106.
  • Roberts, Dave. 2013. A tone orthography typology. In S. R. Borgwaldt and T. Joyce (Eds.), Typology of Writing Systems, 85–111. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Roberts, David. 2016. Word tone and tonal overwriting in Kabiye nouns, Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 37:1.131–160.
  • Roberts, David, & Steven Walter. 2012. Writing grammar rather than tone: an orthography experiment in Togo. Written Language & Literacy, 15(2), 226-253. 
  • Roberts, David & Steven Walter. 2016. Writing morphophonology, reading lexical tone: quantitative evidence in favor of morphographic spelling in Kabiye (Togo), Writing Systems Research.
  • Roberts, David, Keith Snider & Steven Walter. 2016. Neither deep nor shallow: testing the optimal orthographic depth for the representation of tone in Kabiye (Togo), Language and Speech 59:1.113–138.
  • Samarin, William J. 1963. "Questions and Orthography in Sango." The Bible Translator 14/1:30-33.Also online.
  • Snider, Keith. 1992. "Grammatical tone" and orthography. Notes on Literacy 18(4):25-30.
  • Snider, Keith. 2018. Tone Analysis for Field Linguists. Dallas: SIL International.
  • Thayer, Linda J. 1981. "Tone Orthography--Conventions for Languages with Two Tone Levels and Downstep." The Bible Translator 32.2: 220–224. Also online.
  • Thomas, Elaine. 1972. "Marking tone in Engenni." Notes on Literacy 14:9–12.