Tone

 

 

 

Some other resources in the Areas pages also include something on tone, but these have tone as their main subject.

Also see the page on Fonts and technical issues, which discusses issues of grammatical tone marking and Unicode.

  • Awedoba, Albert K.1990. Kasem Tones and Orthography. Journal of West AfricanLanguages 20:31-46.
  • Bernard, H. Russel, George N. Mbeh, W. Penn Handwerker.2002. Does marking tone make tone languages easier to read? Human Organization 61.4: 339-349.
  • Bird, Stephen. 1999a. When marking tone reduces fluency: An orthography experiment n Cameroon. Language and Speech 42: 83-115.
  • Bird, Stephen. 1999b. Strategies for representing tone in African writing systems. Written Language and Literacy 2.1: 1–44.
  • Bolli, Margrit. 1978. "Writing tone with punctuation marks." Notes on Literacy 23:16–18.
  • Cahill, Mike. 2000. Avoiding Tone Marks: A Remnant of English Education? Notes on Literacy 26.1:1–11.
  • Cahill, Michael. 2019. Tone, orthographies, and phonological depth in African languages. In Samson Lotven, Silvina Bongiovanni, Phillip Weirich, Robert Botne & Samuel Gyasi Obeng (eds.), African linguistics across the disciplines: Selected papers from the 48th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, 103–123. Berlin: Language Science Press.
  • Crofts, Marjorie. 1976. Must Tone Always Be Written in a Tonal Language? Technical Papers for the Bible Translator 27(1):127-134.
  • Duitsman, John. 1986. "Testing two systems for marking tone in Western Krahn." Notes on Literacy 49:2–10.
  • Essien, Udo E.1977. To End Ambiguity in a Tone Language. In Language andLinguistic Problems in Africa: Proceedings of the VII Conferenceon African Linguistics. Paul F. A. Kotey and Haig Der-Houssikian,eds. Pp. 155-167. Columbia, S.C.: Hornbeam Press.
  • Hollenbach, Barbara E. 1978. Choosing a tone orthography for Copala Trique. Notes on Literacy 24:52-61.
  • Koffi, Ettien N. 1994. The representation of tones in the orthography. Notes on Literacy20.3:51–59. Edited excerpt from Dr. Ettien’s dissertation “The interface between phonology and morpho(phono)logy in the standardization of Anyi orthography” (97–109.)
  • Kutsch Lojenga, Constance. 1993. The writing and reading of tone in Bantu languages. Notes on Literacy 19.1:1–19.
  • Kutsch Lojenga, Constance. 2014. “Orthography and Tone: A Tone-System Typology with Implications for Orthography Development.”  In Developing Orthographies for Unwritten languages, edited by Michael Cahill and Keren Rice, 49–72. Dallas: SIL International.
  • Longacre, Robert E. 1953. A tone orthography for Trique. (The Bible Translator 4.1:8–13. Reprinted in   Smalley, William A. (editor). 1964. Orthography studies: Articles on new writing systems. London, Amsterdam: United Bible Societies; North-Holland, 132–137. Also online.
  • Mfonyam, Joseph. 1990. Tone Analysis and Tone Orthography. Journal of West African Languages XX.2:19-30.
  • Miller, Margaret D. 1970. "Tone diacritics in Loma." Notes on Literacy 8:3–6.
  • Pike, Kenneth. 1948. Tone Languages: A Technique for Determining the Numberand Type of Pitch Contrasts in a Language, with Studies inTonemic Substitution and Fusion. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Publications in Linguistics.
  • Roberts, David. 2011. Autosegmental and pedagogical considerations in preparation for a tone orthography experiment in Kabiye. Journal of West African Languages XXVIII.2: 87–106.
  • Roberts, Dave. 2013. A tone orthography typology. In S. R. Borgwaldt and T. Joyce (Eds.), Typology of Writing Systems, 85–111. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Roberts, David. 2016. Word tone and tonal overwriting in Kabiye nouns, Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 37:1.131–160.
  • Roberts, David, & Steven Walter. 2012. Writing grammar rather than tone: an orthography experiment in Togo. Written Language & Literacy, 15(2), 226-253. 
  • Roberts, David & Steven Walter. 2016. Writing morphophonology, reading lexical tone: quantitative evidence in favor of morphographic spelling in Kabiye (Togo), Writing Systems Research.
  • Roberts, David, Keith Snider & Steven Walter. 2016. Neither deep nor shallow: testing the optimal orthographic depth for the representation of tone in Kabiye (Togo), Language and Speech 59:1.113–138.
  • Samarin, William J. 1963. "Questions and Orthography in Sango." The Bible Translator 14/1:30-33.Also online.
  • Snider, Keith. 1992. Grammatical tone" and orthography. Notes on Literacy 18(4):25-30.
  • Snider, Keith. 2018. Tone Analysis for Field Linguists. Dallas: SIL International.
  • Thayer, Linda J. 1981. "Tone Orthography--Conventions for Languages with Two Tone Levels and Downstep." The Bible Translator 32.2: 220–224. Also online.
  • Thomas, Elaine. 1972. "Marking tone in Engenni." Notes on Literacy 14:9–12.
  • Voorhoeve, 1962. Some Problems in Writing Tone. The Bible Translator 13:34-38.
  • Wiesemann, Ursula. 1989. Orthography matters. Notes on Literacy 57:14–21.
  • Wiesemann, Ursula. 1995. Tone orthography and pedagogy. Notes on Literacy21.3:25–31