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This paper considers two theories of communication and the theories of translation shaped by them. First, the Code Model of communication is characterized and reasons are presented for why it is an inadequate and misleading theory of communication. Then Source-Meaning-Receptor theories of translation that were shaped by the Code Model are characterized and their inadequacies surveyed. Second, the Relevance Theory of communication is introduced. Then Gutt’s Relevance Theory-based theory of translation is sketched and its dramatic implications for translation are surveyed. Finally, broader implications of the shift from a Code Model to a Relevance Theory perspective are considered, including implications for the praxis of translation, the checking of translations, and the training of translators.