Eastern Tamang Grammar Sketch

2011_05_25_Tamang_thesis_FINAL.pdf1.94 MB
Master of Arts with major in Applied Linguistics, Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics, Dallas.
xvii, 176 pages
This thesis presents a descriptive grammatical sketch of Central-Eastern Tamang which is primarily spoken in the Kabhre District of Central Nepal. Tamang is a Tibeto-Burman language with two major varieties (Eastern and Western Tamang) which are mutually unintelligible. Eastern Tamang (with its population of about 759,000) is divided into two dialects, Central-Eastern Tamang and Outer-Eastern Tamang. Tamang exclusively uses suffixes except for the negative prefix a- ‗NEG‘. Inflectional morphology is restricted to tense, aspect, modality, and negation marking on verbs or auxiliaries (with no agreement marking) and plural number marking on nouns and pronouns. Tamang has differential object case marking which is based on an ergative case system. The basic word order is SOV. Subordinate clauses precede main clauses. Clause subordination is accomplished through subordinating morphemes, a nominalizer, and complementizers. Tamang also has a clause-chaining structure, but does not have serial verb constructions.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS /ABSTRACT /ACKNOWLEDGMENTS /LIST OF TABLES /LIST OF FIGURES AND MAPS /ABBREVIATIONS /1 INTRODUCTION /1.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE /1.1.1 Phonology /1.1.2 Morphology and syntax /1.1.3 Vocabulary lists and dictionaries /1.1.4 Discourse /1.1.5 Tamang texts /1.2 DATA SOURCES /1.2.1 Linguistic survey /1.2.2 Text collection and interlinearlization /1.2.3 Sentence elicitation /2 PHONOLOGY /2.1 CONSONANTS /2.1.1 Initial consonants /2.1.2 Contrast between initial consonants /2.1.3 Final consonants /2.1.4 Consonant clusters /2.2 VOWELS /2.3 SYLLABLE STRUCTURE /2.4 TONE AND VOICE QUALITY /2.5 ORTHOGRAPHY /3 SIMPLE CLAUSES AND BASIC CONSTITUENT ORDER /3.1 INTRANSITIVE CLAUSES /3.2 TRANSITIVE CLAUSES /3.3 DITRANSITIVE /3.4 CLAUSES WITH NON-VERBAL PREDICATES /3.4.1 Attributive clauses /3.4.2 Equative clauses /3.4.3 Locative clauses /3.4.4 Existential clauses /4 WORD CLASSES /4.1 NOUNS /4.1.1 Nouns and number /4.1.2 Gender and classifiers /4.1.3 Monomorphemic vs. compound nouns /4.1.4 Proper names /4.1.5 Honorific nouns /4.2 PRONOUNS /4.2.1 Personal pronouns /4.2.2 Demonstrative pronouns /4.2.3 Interrogative pronouns /4.3 VERBS /4.3.1 Monomorphemic verbs /4.3.2 Compound verbs /4.3.3 Copula verbs /4.3.4 Honorific verbs /4.4 ADJECTIVES /4.5 ADVERBS /4.5.1 Manner adverbs /4.5.2 Temporal adverbs /4.5.3 Directional adverbs /4.5.4 Adverbs of degree /4.5.5 Sentence adverbials /5 NOUN PHRASES AND NOMINALIZATION /5.1 INTRODUCTION /5.2 BASIC WORD ORDER IN NOUN PHRASES /5.3 NOMINALIZATION /5.3.1 Citation forms of verbs /5.3.2 Relative clauses /5.3.3 Complement clauses /5.3.4 Main verbs followed by an auxiliary verb /5.3.5 Purpose clauses /5.4 OTHER FUNCTIONS OF -BA /5.5 CONCLUSION /6 COMPLEX PREDICATES, AUXILIARIES, AND NEGATION /6.1 COMPLEX PREDICATES /6.1.1 Light verb constructions /6.1.2 Complex predicates with a semantically-related noun /6.1.3 Complex predicates with a Nepali loan word /6.2 AUXILIARIES /6.2.1 The auxiliaries ham ‘able’ and to: ‘need’ /6.2.2 The auxiliaries pin ‘give’ and puŋ ‘allow’ /6.3 NEGATION /6.3.1 Negation in different clause types /6.3.2 Negative morphology on various types of verbs /7 CASE /7.1 GRAMMATICAL CASE MARKING IN SIMPLE CLAUSES /7.1.1 Case marking of common nouns /7.1.2 Case marking of proper nouns /7.1.3 Case marking of pronouns /7.1.4 Case marking of non-human S, A, and P /7.1.5 Case marking of human S, A, and P /7.2 SEMANTIC CASE MARKING /7.3 CASE MARKING IN CAUSATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS /7.4 CONCLUSION /8 CLAUSE COMBINATIONS /8.1 COORDINATION IN CLAUSES /8.2 SUBORDINATION IN CLAUSES /8.2.1 Adverbial (or Adjunct) clauses /8.2.2 Relative clauses /8.2.3 Complement clauses /8.3 MEDIAL STRUCTURE (-SI) /8.4 DIRECT QUOTE STRUCTURE /9 STATEMENTS, QUESTIONS, AND COMMANDS /9.1 STATEMENTS /9.2 QUESTIONS /9.2.1 Yes-No questions /9.2.2 Content questions /9.3 COMMANDS /9.3.1 Hortative /9.3.2 Optative /10 CONCLUSION /APPENDIX 1: MONKEY STORY /APPENDIX 2: DEVELOPMENT FOR THE TAMANG /REFERENCES /VITA
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