Sociolinguistic Survey of Lohorung

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Linguistic Survey of Nepal (LinSuN) and SIL International, Central Department of Linguistics, Tribhuvan University
iii, 110 pages
This report presents the results of sociolinguistic research conducted among representatives of the Lohorung [ISO 639-3: lbr], Yamphu [ybi], and Southern Yamphu [lrr] language communities of Sankhuwasabha and Dhankuta districts in Nepal. Linguistic and anthropological research, by van Driem (2001), Rutgers (1998), Hansson (1991), and Hardman (2000), provide helpful context for this investigation of sociolinguistic realities between these groups. The goals of this survey include clarifying the relationships between Lohorung and two related languages; investigating dialect variation and attitudes between three Lohorung communities (Pangma, Angala, and Dhupu); assessing Lohorung language vitality in these three communities; and understanding the Lohorung community’s desires for development. This research adds to previous linguistic description of Lohorung and Yamphu to confirm that, despite their close relationship, they speak separate languages. There is little dialect variation between the Lohorung villages we visited. There are positive attitudes towards the speech variety of Pangma. While language vitality varies among these three Lohorung villages, the degree of vitality (EGIDS 6b, Threatened) warrants language-based development. The Lohorung community desires language-based development, most notably multi-lingual education, adult literacy, and a dictionary.
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Table of Contents:
1 PURPOSE AND GOALS 1; 2 INTRODUCTION 1; 2.1 Geography 1; 2.2 History 5; 2.3 People 6; 2.4 Languages 7; 3 METHODOLOGY 9; 3.1 Site Selection 9; 3.2 Subject Selection 10; 3.3 Research Methods 11; 4 LANGUAGE VARIATION AND ATTITUDES 15; 4.1 Relationship between Lohorung (Pangma) and Yamphu (Hedangna) 16; 4.2 Relationship between Lohorung (Pangma) and Southern Yamphu (Rajarani) 20; 5 DIALECT VARIATION AND ATTITUDES 21; 5.1 Lexical Similarity Results 21; 5.2 Intelligibility Testing Results 22; 5.3 Dialect Attitudes 22; 5.4 Summary 23; 6 LANGUAGE USE AND VITALITY 23; 6.1 Domains of Language Use 24; 6.2 Language Use by Age, Education, and Gender 28; 6.3 Intergenerational Transfer 31; 6.4 Language Vitality in Lohorung Speech Communities 34; 6.5 Summary 36; 7 DESIRES FOR DEVELOPMENT 37; 8 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR LANGUAGE-BASED DEVELOPMENT 39; 8.1 Language Variation and Attitudes 39; 8.2 Dialect Variation and Attitudes 39; 8.3 Language Use and Vitality 40; 8.4 Desires for Development 40; 9 REFERENCES 42
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Southern Lohorung
Northern Lohorung
Nepal survey
Kirati Rai
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