Meaning-Based Translation Workbook: Biblical Exercises

Statement of Responsibility:
Larson, Mildred L., Ellis W. Deibler and Marjorie Crofts
University Press of America and Summer Institute of Linguistics
Publisher Place:
Lanham, MD
xvi, 307 pages
workbook to accompany textbook, Meaning-based translation: A guide to cross-language equivalence, 2nd ed.
Publication Status:
Table of Contents:

Additional Reading, Scripture References, and Acknowledgements

  1. Overview of the Translation Task
    1. Form and Meaning
      1. Analyzing "work of..."
      2. Analyzing "love of..."
      3. Identifying the underlying meaning of identical grammatical structures
      4. Types of adjustments
    2. Kinds of Translations
      1. Comparing literal and idiomatic translation
      2. Comparing various versions
      3. Identifying naturalness
      4. Historical fidelity
      5. Accuracy of meaning
      6. Comparing versions
      7. Comparing versions
    3. The Semantic Structure of Language
      1. Semantic classes
      2. Skewing between semantics and grammar, examples from the Psalms
      3. Skewing between semantics and grammar, examples from Romans
      4. Eliminating skewing between semantic and grammatical classes
    4. Implicit Meaning
      1. Ellipsis
      2. Linguistically obligatory additions in the receptor language
      3. Implied identification of a referent
      4. Implied contextual information
      5. Implied cultural information
      6. Old Testament quotations
      7. Review
    5. Steps in a Translation Project

  2. The Lexicon
    1. Words as "Bundles" of Meaning
      1. Identifying the semantic class of a word
      2. Identifying semantic classes
      3. Identifying Event words
      4. Identifying implicit Events
    2. Some Relationships between Lexical Items
      1. Identifying the meaning components of a word
      2. Identifying generic-specific changes
      3. Using a more generic word
      4. Using a more specific word
    3. Discovering Meaning by Grouping and Contrast
      1. Taxonomies
    4. Mismatching of Lexical Systems between Languages
      1. Son
      2. Daughter
      3. Brother
      4. Older brother and younger brother
      5. Obligatory possession
      6. Obligatory possession and kinship terms
      7. Obligatory possession and body parts
      8. Tense
      9. Aspect
      10. "Dead" suffix in Amuesha
    5. Multiple Senses of Lexical Items
      1. Multiple senses of "church"
      2. Multiple senses of "arms"
      3. Multiple senses of "bless"
      4. Secondary senses of "body"
      5. Secondary senses
    6. Figurative Senses of Lexical Items
      1. Various senses
      2. Figurative senses, based on association
      3. Figurative senses, based on part-whole associations
      4. Meaning in context
      5. Metonymy
      6. Identifying metonymy
      7. Synecdoche
      8. Identifying synecdoche
      9. Changing hyperbole
      10. Identifying hyperbole and hypobole
      11. Changing euphemisms
      12. Identifying euphemism
      13. Euphemisms: Old Testament examples
      14. Source-language idioms
    7. Person Reference
      1. Identifying the pronominal referent
      2. Inclusive/Exclusive
      3. Pronominal distinctions of number
      4. Honorifics
      5. Use of first person plural for first person singular
      6. Use of first person singular in a generic sense
      7. Use of third person for first or second person
      8. Use of second or third person for first person plural
      9. General pronouns
      10. Review
      11. Review
      12. Review from Psalms
      13. Objectivization
      14. Personification
      15. Personification and apostrophe
      16. Changing personification and apostrophe
    8. Lexical Items and Situational Context
      1. Symbolic actions
      2. Interpersonal relations and choice of vocabulary
      3. Identifying adjustments
      4. Elicitation
    9. Collocation of Lexical Items
      1. Tongue
      2. House
      3. Comparing versions
      4. Old and New Testament concordance
      5. Identifying potential collocational clashes
      6. Basis for collocational clashes
      7. Basis for collocational clashes, continued
    10. Lexical Equivalents When Concepts are Shared
      1. Semantically complex words
      2. Semantic doublets
      3. Negating an antonym
      4. Litotes
      5. Reciprocal equivalent
      6. Changing to nonfigurative expression
    11. Lexical Equivalents When Concepts are Unknown
      1. Form versus function
      2. Modified with a statement of function
      3. Loan word modified with a classifier
      4. Cultural substitutes
      5. Identifying lexical equivalence
      6. Loan word modified with a specification of form or function, or both
      7. Identifying historical and didactic passages
      8. Evaluating faithfulness
    12. Special Problems in Finding Lexical Equivalents
      1. Identifying the meaning components of some key words
      2. Analyzing the components of meaning of key words

    Review of Chapters 6-17

    1. Identifying translation adjustments
    2. Identifying translation adjustments
    3. Identifying translation adjustments

  3. Propositional Structure
    1. Propositions
      1. Adjusting adjectives
      2. Adjective modifying an abstract noun
      3. Eliminating abstract nouns and participles
      4. Adjectival constructions, abstract nouns, and propositions
      5. Metonymy, synecdoche, and propositions
      6. Writing propositions
      7. Writing Luke 1:76-77 as propositions
      8. Writing Titus 1:1-3 as propositions
      9. Writing propositions
    2. Relations within Event Propositions
      1. Making implied Events explicit
      2. Analyzing "work of..."
      3. Analyzing "love of..."
      4. Identifying the underlying meaning of identical grammatical structures
      5. Identifying semantic roles
      6. Restructuring for naturalness
      7. One form with various meanings (from Barnwell 1974:174-75)
    3. Relations within State Propositions
      1. Genitive constructions restated as State propositions
      2. Identifying State and Event propositions
      3. Identifying implicit Events
      4. Writing State propositions
      5. Writing Romans 1:1-7 as propositions
    4. Skewing between Propositional Structure and Clause Structure
      1. Identifying abstract nouns
      2. Changing abstract nouns to verb phrases
      3. Identifying and unskewing abstract nouns
      4. Changing abstract nouns to relative clauses
      5. Changing order within clauses
      6. Placing verbal complements before the verb
      7. Review
      8. Identifying passives and actives
      9. Changing passives to actives
      10. Making the agent explicit
      11. Changing actives to passives
      12. Causative
      13. Changing participles to relative clauses
      14. Changing participles to finite verbs
      15. Changing finite verbs to participles
      16. Genitive constructions with no explicit event
      17. Genitive constructions with an explicit event
      18. Genitive constructions containing abstract nouns
      19. Genitive constructions containing implied Events
      20. Genitive constructions representing two propositions
      21. Genitive constructions using "...of God"
      22. Old Testament examples
      23. Adjusting genitive constructions
      24. Complex genitive phrases
      25. Genitive constructions which do not involve an Event proposition
      26. Constructions that involve an Event proposition

    Review of Chapters 18-21

    1. Identifying translation adjustments
    1. Skewing of Illocutionary Force and Grammatical Form
      1. Real versus rhetorical questions
      2. Real versus rhetorical questions, continued
      3. Changing rhetorical questions to statements
      4. Real versus rhetorical questions, continued
      5. Rewriting rhetorical questions
      6. Supplying the answer to a rhetorical question
      7. Functions of rhetorical questions
      8. Adjusting to a rhetorical question
      9. Adjusting forms of questions
      10. Adjusting rhetorical questions
      11. Double negatives
      12. Restating as a positive statement
      13. Negatives in statements of exception
      14. Placement of negatives
      15. Changing negatives to "only" clauses
      16. Negative-positive sets
      17. Positive-negative sets
      18. Changing rhetorical questions with a negative particle to positive statements
      19. Irony
      20. Review
      21. Review
    2. Figurative Propositions/Metaphors and Similes
      1. Analyzing similes
      2. Dead versus live metaphors
      3. Meanings of dead metaphors (idioms)
      4. Analyzing metaphors
      5. Identifying topic, image, and point of similarity
      6. Changing metaphors to similes
      7. Changing to a nonfigurative form
      8. Old Testament metaphors
      9. Adjusting metaphors
      10. Review of figures of speech
    3. More on Propositional Analysis
      1. Identifying the underlying meaning of identical grammatical structures
      2. Identifying Event words
      3. Using verbs to express Events
      4. Figures of speech and propositions
      5. Metaphors, genitive constructions, and propositions

    Review of Chapters 18--24

    1. Writing propositions
    2. Stating propositions

  4. Communications Relations
    1. Addition and Support Relations
      1. Identifying larger units related to concepts
      2. Propositions that are related to concepts within the proposition
      3. Chronological sequence versus simultaneity
      4. Other types of Addition
      5. Identifying relationships
      6. Omitted chronological sequences
      7. Identifying Addition and Support propositions
      8. Chronological order
      9. Chiasmus
    2. Orientation and Clarification Relations
      1. Support propositions that orient
      2. Support propositions that clarify and are distinct in meaning
      3. Support propositions that clarify and are similar in meaning
      4. Identifying clarification relations
      5. Identifying clarification relations
    3. Logical Relations
      1. Propositions that argue
      2. Condition of fact versus contrary-to-fact
      3. Identifying types of conditional clauses
      4. "Unless" clauses or conditionals
      5. Omitted main clause with reason clauses
      6. Making information explicit
      7. Identifying logical relations
      8. Logical order
      9. Order of clauses within sentences
      10. More practice in identifying logical relations
    4. Stimulus-RESPONSE Roles
      1. Changing indirect speech to direct speech in Navajo
      2. Using "said" plus direct speech in Waiwai
      3. Using "said" plus direct speech in Chontal
      4. Using "said" plus direct speech in Auca
      5. Using direct speech for purpose clauses in Aguaruna
      6. Using direct speech for purpose clauses in Gahuku
      7. Changing direct speech to indirect in Nilotic languages
      8. Identifying speech roles
      9. Identifying Stimulus-RESPONSE roles

    Review of Chapters 24-28

    1. Labeling relations in a display
    2. Writing as propositions
    3. Propositional display of Col. 1:1-5
    4. Propositional display of Titus 1:5-16

    Review of Chapters 1-28

    1. Identifying potential translation problems
    2. Identifying potential translation problems (continued)
    3. Identifying adjustments that have been made in a translation
    4. Translation into "Glish"
    5. Review exercise: Identifying translation adjustments

  5. Texts
    1. Groupings
      1. Dividing long sentences
      2. Combining short sentences
      3. Reordering chronologically
      4. Reordering for logical and chronological order
      5. Identifying paragraph boundaries
      6. Identifying sections
      7. Identifying larger semantic units in 3 John
      8. Identifying larger semantic units in Luke 12
      9. Topic sentences
      10. Section or paragraph markers
      11. Interpolations
      12. Thematic groupings
      13. Review exercise
    2. Discourse Genre
      1. Identifying discourse types
      2. Changing third person to first
      3. Changing first to third person
      4. Person in hortatory discourse
      5. Person orientation of metaphors
      6. Hortatory discourse
    3. Cohesion
      1. Lexical cohesion
      2. Tracing participants through the discourse
      3. Identifying the antecedent
      4. Pronominal reference
      5. Use of role
      6. Fourth person
      7. Introducing participants
      8. Clause connectors
      9. Review through applying discourse rules
    4. Prominence
      1. Thematic prominence
      2. Thematic function of relative clauses
      3. Prominence with focus value
      4. Focus of participants
      5. Identifying the theme propositions in Acts
    5. The Communication Situation
      1. Involvement of the narrator
      2. Attitude of the speaker using vocative phrases
      3. Functions of the vocative phrase
      4. Changing vocative phrases to a different grammatical construction
      5. Attitude of the speaker
      6. Placement of the vocative phrase
      7. Aspects of the communication situation
    6. The Information Load
      1. Known and new information
      2. Linking new to known information in discourse
      3. Preview and summary
      4. Reducing the rate of information
      5. Expected information

  6. The Translation Project
    1. Establishing the Project
    2. Translation Procedures
      1. Asoinda text (Saramaccan) (prepared by Catherine Rountree)
      2. Dawson text (Saramaccan) (prepared by Catherine Rountree)
      3. Alekano text: "The Bicycle"
    3. Testing the Translation
      1. Apeninge text (Saramaccan) (prepared by Catherine Rountree)
      2. Comprehension questions
      3. Identifying adjustments that have been made in a translation
Content Language:
Work Type:
Translation principles
Field manuals
Nature of Work:
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