A Manual for Problem Solving in Bible Translation

Statement of Responsibility:
Larson, Mildred L
Publisher Place:
Grand Rapids
245 pages
Publication Status:
Table of Contents:


1. Idiomatic Versus Literal Translation

A. Comparing literal and idiomatic translations
B. Comparing various versions

2. Fidelity In Translation

A. Identifying historical and didactic passages
B. Application to “figs”
C. Identifying naturalness
D. Historical fidelity
E. Accuracy of meaning
F. Comparing versions

3. Implicit And Explicit Information

A. Ellipsis
B. Linguistically obligatory additions
C. Omitted chronological sequences
D. Omitted main clause with reason clauses
E. Making information explicit
F. Old Testament quotations
G. Review

4. Analyzing The Components Of Meaning In A Word, Part 1

A. Identifying the semantic class of a word
B. Matching semantic and grammatical classes
C. Identifying the meaning components of a word
D. Identifying generic-specific changes
E. Using a more generic word
F. Using a more specific word
G. Identifying the pronominal referent
H. Identifying the meaning components of some key words

5. Analyzing Components Of Meaning In A Word, Part 2

Section 1. Analyzing the components of meaning of words

A. Spirit
B. Flesh
C. Glory

Section 2. The components of meaning of pronouns

A. Inclusive-exclusive
B. Number
C. Honorifics

Section 3. The components of meaning in kinship terms

A. Son
B. Daughter
C. Brother
D. Older brother and younger brother
E. An example from Aguaruna
F. Siblings

Section 4. Obligatory possession

A. Examples based on Guafiro
B. Examples based on Guajiro, continued
C. Obligatory possession and kinship terms
D. Obligatory possession and body parts
E. Obligatory possession, number, and inclusive-exclusive

Section 5. The components of meaning in tense and aspect markers

A. Tense
B. Aspect
C. “Dead” suffix in Amuesha

6. The Nature Of Multiple Senses

A. Various senses
B. Figurative senses, based on contiguity
C. Figurative senses, based on part-whole associations
D. Meaning in context

7. Translating Multiple Senses

Section 1. Extended use of pronouns

A. Extended use of plural for singular
B. Extended use of singular for plural
C. Extended use of person
D. Implicit exclusiveness
E. Review
F. General pronouns
G. Review

Section 2. Figurative senses and symbolic actions

A. Metonymy
B. Synecdoche
C. Hyperbole
D. Euphemism
E. Source-language idioms
F. Symbolic actions

8. The Nature Of Metaphor And Simile

A. Simile
B. Metaphor
C. Identifying topic, image, and point of similarity
D. Dead versus live metaphors
E. Meanings of dead metaphors

9. Translating Metaphors And Similes

A. Making explicit the three parts of a metaphor
B. Changing metaphors to similes
C. Changing to a nonfigurative form
D. Review

10. Concordance And Meanings In Context

A. Spirit
B. Tongue
C. House
D. Comparing versions
E. Old and New Testament concordance

11. Collocational Clash

A. Identifying potential collocational clashes
B. Basis for collocational clashes
C. Basis for collocational clashes, continued
D. Elicitation

12. Lexical Equivalence Across Languages--When Concepts Are Shared

A. Semantically complex words
B. Semantic doublets
C. Negating an Antonym
D. Litotes
E. Reciprocal equivalent
F. Generic-specific
G. Changing to nonfigurative usage

13. Lexical Equivalence Across Languages--When Things Or Events Are Unknown

A. Form versus function
B. Modified with a statement of function
C. Loan word modified with a classifier
D. Loan word modified with a specification of form or function or both
E. Cultural substitutes
F. Identifying lexical equivalence

Review--Identifying translation adjustments

14. Multiple Functions Of Grammatical Structures

Section 1. Passive-active

A. Identifying passives and actives
B. Changing passives to actives
C. Changing actives to passives
D. Causative

Section 2. Abstract nouns

A. Identifying abstract nouns
B. Changing abstract nouns to verb phrases
C. Identifying more abstract nouns
D. Changing abstract nouns to relative clauses
E. Review

Section 3. Participles

A. Changing participles to relative clauses
B. Changing participles to finite verbs
C. Changing finite verbs to participles
D. Review

Section 4. Attributives

A. Changing attributives
B. Review

Section 5. Objectivization and Personification

A. Objectivization
B. Personification

Section 6. Chronological order

Section 7. Negatives

A. Double negatives
B. Restating as a positive statement
C. Placement of the negative
D. Changing negative to “only” clauses

Section 8. Review

A. Identifying adjustments
B. Identifying adjustments, continued

15. Rhetorical Questions

A. Real versus rhetorical questions
B. Changing rhetorical questions to statements
C. Changing rhetorical questions with a negative particle to positive statements
D. Real versus rhetorical questions, continued
E. Supplying the answer to a rhetorical question
F. Functions of rhetorical questions
G. Review
H. Review
I. Identifying translation adjustments

16. Genitive Constructions

Section 1. Restating genitive constructions

A. Genitive constructions restated as State propositions
B. Genitive constructions restated as Event propositions
C. Genitive constructions containing abstract nouns
D. Genitive constructions containing implied Events
E. Genitive construction representing two propositions
F. Genitive constructions using “…of God”
G. Making the implied Event explicit
H. Changing genitive constructions

Section 2. Classifying genitive constructions

A. Those that may be restated as State propositions
B. Those that may be restated as Event propositions
C. Those in which the Event is implicit and which may be restated as Event propositions

Section 3. Review

17. Propositions And Semantic Structures

Section 1. Analyzing the surface structure

A. Analyzing “work of…”
B. Analyzing “love of…”
C. Identifying the underlying meaning of identical grammatical structures
D. Identifying State and Event propositions
E. Identifying implicit Events
F. Identifying Developmental and Supporting propositions
G. Identifying paragraph boundaries
H. Identifying sections
I. Identifying the Theme propositions in Acts
J. Section or paragraph markers

Section 2. Practice in writing propositions

A. Writing propositions
B. Writing Romans 1:1-7 as propositions
C. Adjectival constructions, abstract nouns, and propositions
D. Metonymy, synecdoche, and pro positions
E. Figures of speech and propositions
F. Metaphors, genitive constructions and propositions
G. Review
H. Stating propositions

18. Relations Between Propositions

Section 1. Addition

A. Chronological sequence versus simultaneity
B. Other types of Addition

Section 2. Specific types of support relations

A. Support propositions that clarify and are distinct in meaning
B. Support propositions that clarify and are similar in meaning
C. Support propositions that argue
D. Condition of fact versus contrary-to-fact
E. Identifying types of conditional clauses
F. “Unless” clauses or conditionals
G. Support propositions that orient
H. Support propositions that are related to part of a proposition
I. Propositional display of Colossians 1:1-5
J. Propositional display of Titus 1:5-16

Section 3. Review

A. Identifying potential translation problems
B. Identifying potential translation problems, continued
C. Identifying adjustments that have been made in a translation

19. Larger Semantic Units

A. Indentation format in a display
B. Labeling relations in a display
C. Identifying larger semantic units in 3 John
D. Identifying larger semantic units in Luke 12

20. Analyzing And Displaying The Propositions Within A Paragraph

A. Identifying Event words
B. Identifying implicit Events
C. Using verbs to express Events
D. Using verbs to express genitive constructions
E. Review
F. Semantic display of propositions
G. Translating into “Glish”

21. The Organization Of Discourse

Section 1. Discourse types and factors differentiating them

A. Identifying discourse types
B. Changing first person to third
C. Changing third person to first
D. Hortatory discourse
E. Explanatory discourse
F. Person orientation of metaphors

Section 2. Sentence length

A. Dividing long sentences
B. Combining short sentences

Section 3. Involvement of the narrator

Section 4. Vocatives

A. Attitude of the speaker using vocative phrases
B. Functions of the vocative phrase
C. Changing vocative phrases to a different grammatical construction

Section 5. Quotations within discourse

A. Changing indirect speech to direct speech in Navajo
B. Using “said” plus direct speech in Waiwai
C. Using “said” plus direct speech in Chontal
D. Using “said” plus direct speech in Auca
E. Using direct speech for purpose clauses in Aguaruna
F. Using direct speech for purpose clauses in Gahuku
G. Changing direct speech to indirect in Nilotic languages

22. Grouping

Section 1. Groupings

A. Changing order of clauses
B. Placing verbal complements before the verb
C. Placement of the vocative phrase
D. Topic sentences
E. Paragraph divisions
F. Interpolations
G. Chronological order
H. Order of clauses within sentences
I. Thematic groupings

Section 2. Chronological sequence

A. Reordering chronologically
B. Reordering for logical and chronological order

23. Cohesion

A. Lexical cohesion
B. Tracing participants through the discourse
C. Identifying the antecedent
D. Pronominal reference
E. Use of role
F. Fourth person
G. Introducing participants
H. Clause connectors
I. Applying discourse rules

24. Prominence

A. Thematic prominence
B. Thematic function of relative clauses
C. Prominence with focus value
D. Focus of participants

25. Information Load

A. Known and new information
B. Linking new to known information in discourse
C. Preview and summary
D. Reducing the rate of information
E. Expected information

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