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This paper presents the results of sociolinguistic research conducted during the summers of 2003 and 2004 among the Yazghulami people living in the northwestern part of Badakhshan in Tajikistan. The primary goals of the research were to investigate patterns of proficiency in, use of, and access to Tajik in the Yazghulami communities. Of particular interest is the correlation between levels of proficiency in Tajik and access to Tajik, and the implications of this correlation for future changes in language use. Initial data were gathered through interviews and observations, while more in-depth data were gathered through a language access questionnaire and a proficiency storying interview.