A Descriptive Grammar of Gurezi Shina

Statement of Responsibility:
Ahmed, Musavir
Issue Date:
Gurezi Shina is a variant of Shina language, spoken in Gurez valley of Kashmir in J&K state of India. The present work is the first major work on this variety of Shina. Gurezi Shina is an SOV language and has certain characteristic grammatical features which include a series of retroflex sounds, pitch accent and an elaborate case system. The nine retroflex sounds include fricatives, affricates, nasals and plosives. Nasalization of vowels is widespread and all ten vowels have distinctive nasal counterparts. Pitch accent is lexical in nature, however its distinctive use was found to be on decline as only a small number of minimal pairs, contrasting on this feature could be found. This may be because of a large number of borrowed words and extensive contact with languages like Kashmiri, Urdu and English. Gurezi Shina has a distinct oblique case, from which most of the other cases are derived. Besides, there are two forms of agentive, perfective and imperfective, triggered by verbal aspect. The case alignment in Gurezi is the rare S/A/P, in which the unmarked nominative goes with the single argument of intransitives, patient-like objects take the oblique in many instances, and the agentive is different from both oblique and unmarked nominative. Gurezi has four postpositional clitics which serve case like functions. A typical feature of fusion between the main verb and the following auxiliary in certain contexts was found in the language. Unlike inflectional morphology which is elaborate, derivational morphology wasn’t found to be exhaustive in Gurezi. In the absence of a standardized script for Gurezi Shina, the work has presented a working script for writing the language. The script, prepared in consultation with the Shina speakers of Gurez, is based on Perso-Arabic writing system.
129 pages
Table of Contents:
1 Introduction -- 2 Sound System -- 3 Morphology -- 4 Derivations -- 5 Syntax -- 6 Script
S/A/P case alignment
Retroflex sounds
Pitch accent
Subject Languages:
Nature of Work:
Relation Text:
Mangal, SakkalMajalla, Scheherazade fonts
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