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This paper presents the findings of a sociolinguistic survey among the Nyiha and Nyika language communities in south-western Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia. The main purpose of the research was to clarify the extent of any dialect differences between the varieties that could impact the ongoing language development process in the Nyiha of Mbozi variety (Tanzania). The research was conducted in August, September and November 2004. The survey identified five different ethnic groups called Nyiha or Nyika in Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. Research findings suggest that the Nyiha of Malawi/Zambia could possibly use written materials in the Nyiha of Mbozi variety. The Nyika of Malawi and the Nyiha of Sumbawanga (Tanzania) were found to speak varieties different enough to warrant their own language development efforts. The language variety spoken by the Nyika of Rungwe (Tanzania) was found to be not a variety of Nyiha or Nyika at all and was not further investigated.